The northern emirates which include Fujairah, Ajman, Ras al-Khaimah, and Umm al-Qaiwain all have a total area of 3,881 square kilometres (1,498 square miles). [353], Major holidays in the United Arab Emirates include Eid al Fitr, which marks the end of Ramadan, and National Day (2 December), which marks the formation of the United Arab Emirates. Politique étrangère et exigences de sécurité pour les É.A.U. [337] A 1,200 km (750 mi) country-wide railway is under construction which will connect all the major cities and ports. [160] The largest defence exhibition and conference in the Middle East, International Defence Exhibition, takes place biennially in Abu Dhabi. [79], The United Arab Emirates is situated in Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf, between Oman and Saudi Arabia; it is in the south of the Strait of Hormuz, a transit point for world crude oil. The five most populous nationalities in the emirates of Dubai, Sharjah, and Ajman are Indian (25%), Pakistani (12%), Emirati (9%), Bangladeshi (7%), and Filipino (5%). regroupe les Émirats arabes unis, le Koweït, Bahreïn, l'Arabie Saoudite, Oman et le Qatar, avec leurs 35 millions d'habitants en 2006. The UAE's rising international profile has led to it being recognised as a regional and a middle power. The UAE is described by western observers as an "autocracy". [279], In April 2009, a video tape of torture smuggled out of the UAE showed Sheikh Issa bin Zayed Al Nahyan torturing a man (Mohammed Shah Poor) with whips, electric cattle prods, wooden planks with protruding nails and running him over repeatedly with a car. The first ever national elections were held in the UAE on 16 December 2006. [90] During the late summer months, there is a humid southeastern wind known as Sharqi (i.e. [115], The UAE has extensive diplomatic and commercial relations with other countries. [172][209][210] Abortion is illegal and punishable by a maximum penalty of 100 lashes and up to five years in prison. La mission Hope est la première mission interplanétaire arabe. The Sharjah Cricket Association Stadium in Sharjah has hosted four international test cricket matches so far. Lire la suite, Dans le chapitre « La pénétration anglaise et les indépendances » [341] Internet subscribers were expected to increase from 0.904 million in 2007 to 2.66 million in 2012. To support the economy the Government is currently following an expansionary fiscal policy. Example of national military development include the Abu Dhabi Shipbuilding company (ADSB), which produces a range of ships and is a prime contractor in the Baynunah Programme, a programme to design, develop and produce corvettes customised for operation in the shallow waters of the Persian Gulf. The ministry plans to add three hospitals to the current 14, and 29 primary healthcare centres to the current 86. [179] As of November 2020, Alcohol consumption for Muslims and non Muslims is legal. As such, a knowledge of the language is a requirement when applying for most local jobs. [18][19] The country has become less reliant on oil or gas and is economically focusing on tourism and business. L’ANL est soutenue par la Russie, l’Arabie Saoudite, les Émirats arabes unis et l’Égypte. regroupe sept émirats : Abu Dhabi, Dubaï, Sharjah, Ajman, Umm al-Qaiwain, Ras al-Khaimah et Fujaïrah. [195] Sharia courts have penalized domestic workers with floggings. mais nous avons quelques atouts qui font incontestablement la différence. The government follows a policy of tolerance toward other religions and rarely interferes in the activities of non-Muslims. The traditional food of the Emirates has always been rice, fish and meat. © 2020 Encyclopædia Universalis France.Tous droits de propriété industrielle et intellectuelle réservés. It plays a significant role in OPEC and the UN, and is one of the founding members of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). This growth is mainly due to the influx of foreign workers into the country, making the national population a minority. Le climat est désertique : les précipitations annuelles sont de moins de 100 millimètres. The Emirate of Abu Dhabi has 31.2%, meaning that over two-thirds of the UAE population lives in either Abu Dhabi or Dubai. Émirats arabes unis – Chine – États-Unis. The list of museums in the United Arab Emirates includes some of regional repute, most famously Sharjah with its Heritage District containing 17 museums,[357] which in 1998 was the Cultural Capital of the Arab World. The people of the United Arab Emirates have adopted most of their foods from other West and South Asian countries including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, India and Oman. There are two areas under joint control. The non-oil trade has grown to 1.2 trillion AED, a growth by around 28 times from 1981 to 2012. In return, the British promised to protect the Trucial Coast from all aggression by sea and to help in case of land attack. Dubaï, avec 3 900 kilomètres carrés, est marqué par le savoir-faire commercial [...], 1  Comment les Émirats arabes unis investissent l'Afrique D'abord à finalité économique, les engagements émiratis en augmentation sur le continent visent aussi des objectifs politiques. [30], The earliest Christian site in the UAE was first discovered in the 1990s, an extensive monastic complex on what is now known as Sir Bani Yas Island and which dates back to the 7th century. The United Arab Emirates is a federal constitutional monarchy made up from a federation of seven hereditary tribal monarchy-styled political system called Sheikhdoms. Hence, both are enforceable simultaneously. The UAE is annually ranked as "Not Free" in Freedom House's annual Freedom in the World report, which measures civil liberties and political rights. Chaque semaine, recevez avant tout le monde les conseils de nos spécialistes, les anecdotes de nos bloggeurs et les dernières tendances en image, pour faire le plein d’idées de voyage. [15][16] Sheikh Zayed, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the first President of UAE, oversaw the development of the Emirates and steered oil revenues into healthcare, education and infrastructure. [374][375] The 14th edition of the Asia Cup Cricket tournament was held in the UAE in September 2018. Ce drapeau présente trois bandes horizontales aux couleurs traditionnelles panarabiques : le vert des Fatimides, le blanc des Omeyyades et le noir des Abbasides : brochant sur le tout au guindant, une bande verticale rouge, couleur traditionnelle des émirats du Golfe,... La superficie des É.A.U. The Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC, later to become British Petroleum, or BP) had a 23.75% share in IPC. In Dubai, in addition to the metro, Dubai Tram and Palm Jumeirah Monorail also connect specific parts of the city. It is located halfway between the Musandam peninsula and the rest of Oman in the Emirate of Sharjah. The UAE also disputes claim on other islands against the neighboring state of Qatar. The British Labour government rejected the offer. [249] Article 1 and Article 66 of UAE's Penal Code requires hudud crimes to be punished with the death penalty;[249][250] therefore, apostasy is punishable by death in the UAE. A number of options between PCL and the trucial rulers were signed, providing useful revenue for communities experiencing poverty following the collapse of the pearl trade. [384] The average life expectancy was 76.7 in 2012, higher than for any other Arab country. Abu Dhabi représente plus de 80 p. 100 du territoire des É.A.U. Should they seek alternatives, we are ready to listen to them. [48] The tribal nature of society and the lack of definition of borders between emirates frequently led to disputes, settled either through mediation or, more rarely, force. The UAE operates the General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon F-16E Block 60 unique variant unofficially called "Desert Falcon", developed by General Dynamics with collaboration of the UAE and specifically for the United Arab Emirates Air Force. [326], The weaker points remain the level of education across the UAE population, limitations in the financial and labour markets, barriers to trade and some regulations that hinder business dynamism. [274] The latest forced disappearance involves three sisters from Abu Dhabi. [266][267][268][269][270][271] Many foreign nationals and Emirati citizens have been arrested and abducted by the state. [126][127] Former British Prime Minister Tony Blair serves as a funded adviser to the Mubadala Development Company, a wholly owned investment vehicle of the government of Abu Dhabi.[128]. Laâyoune – Les Émirats Arabes Unis ont ouvert, ce mercredi 04 novembre 2020, un Consulat général à Laâyoune, la 9ème représentation diplomatique inaugurée dans la capitale du Sahara marocain en moins d’un an. [225], Emirati women must receive permission from a male guardian to marry and remarry. [306], On 10 September 2018, Yemeni detainees in a UAE-run prison underwent a hunger strike to protest their detention. On the following day the Federal Supreme Council elected his son, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, to the post.[98]. [322] Most malls in the UAE have a dress code displayed at entrances. Comment les Emirats Arabes Unis sont en train de conquérir l’Afrique . On 28 December 2004, there was snow recorded in the UAE for the first time, in the Jebel Jais mountain cluster in Ras al-Khaimah. Seafood has been the mainstay of the Emirati diet for centuries. [370] The United Arab Emirates Football Association was established in 1971 and since then has dedicated its time and effort to promoting the game, organising youth programmes and improving the abilities of not only its players but also the officials and coaches involved with its regional teams. [169][170][171][172][173][174][175][176][177] More recently in 2015, two men were sentenced to 80 lashes for hitting and insulting a woman. Also considering the fact that exports have become the main driver of the UAE's economic growth (the contribution of international trade to GDP grew from 31% in 2017 to 33.5% in 2018, outpacing overall GDP growth for the period), and the fact that the AED is currently undervalued, a departure from this policy – and particularly the peg – would negatively affect this important part of the UAE economy in the short term. [114], The UAE has escaped the Arab Spring; however, more than 100 Emirati activists were jailed and tortured because they sought reforms. ; c’est le seul émirat qui soit d’un seul tenant, sans enclave. Prior to withdrawing from the area in 1971, Britain delineated the internal borders among the seven emirates in order to preempt territorial disputes that might hamper formation of the federation. The Islamic personal status law is applied to Muslims and sometimes non-Muslims. [54], PDTC continued its onshore exploration away from the disputed area, drilling five more bore holes that were also dry. The UAE is home to some pan-Arab broadcasters, including the Middle East Broadcasting Centre and Orbit Showtime Network. [298], In 2012, Dubai police subjected three British citizens to beatings and electric shocks after arresting them on drugs charges. The UAE's oil reserves are the sixth-largest in the world while its natural gas reserves are the world's seventh-largest. [208] Between 2009 and 2013, several people were sentenced to death by stoning. Ce chef tribal de la péninsule Arabique, dont le pétrole fit l'un des hommes les plus fortunés du monde, fut un monarque omniprésent dans l'iconographie de son pays, un chef d'État respecté dans le monde arabe pour sa fidélité […] L'Asie émergente a fortement contribué à la reprise du commerce mondial dès le printemps. Although the oil and gas sector does still play an important role in the UAE economy, these efforts have paid off in terms of great resilience during periods of oil price fluctuations and economic turbulence. [268], The Arab Organization for Human Rights has obtained testimonies from many defendants, for its report on "Forced Disappearance and Torture in the UAE", who reported that they had been kidnapped, tortured and abused in detention centres. "[223] The Federal Penal Code repealed only those provisions within the penal codes of individual emirates which are contradictory to the Federal Penal Code. [282] Human Rights Watch criticised the trial and called on the government to establish an independent body to investigate allegations of abuse by UAE security personnel and other persons of authority. The most complicated borders were in the Al-Hajar al-Gharbi mountains, where five of the emirates contested jurisdiction over more than a dozen enclaves. In May 2014, an Asian housemaid was sentenced to death by stoning in Abu Dhabi. [392], Based on the Ministry of Economy census in 2005, 76% of the total population was Muslim, 13% Christian, and 11% other (mainly Hindu). […] [111][112] According to The New York Times, the UAE is "an autocracy with the sheen of a progressive, modern state". Between 2000 and 2018, average real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth was at close to 4%. sont un désert sablonneux, qui fait partie du Roub al-Khali (« le quart vide ») situé dans le sud de la péninsule arabique, lequel sépare cette région d’autres territoires tels que l’Hadramaout (Yémen) ou le Nejd (Arabie Saoudite), une région peu fréquentée avant la construction de routes intérieures. [205][206][207] Other expatriates have been sentenced to death by stoning for committing adultery. [294][295], The issue of sexual abuse among female domestic workers is another area of concern, particularly given that domestic servants are not covered by the UAE labour law of 1980 or the draft labour law of 2007. All prime ministers but one have served concurrently as vice president. Les Emirats connaissent un climat subtropical aride, caractérisé par la chaleur et l’humidité toute l’année. Even though as compared to retail and property, UAE banks fared well. [267][272], In 2013, 94 Emirati activists were held in secret detention centres and put on trial for allegedly attempting to overthrow the government. [339] The major ports of the United Arab Emirates are Khalifa Port, Zayed Port, Port Jebel Ali, Port Rashid, Port Khalid, Port Saeed, and Port Khor Fakkan.[340]. l'appli qui vous guide aux Emirats Arabes Unis. Also, it is an observer in the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. From 1935, onshore concessions to explore for oil were granted by local rulers, with APOC signing the first one on behalf of Petroleum Concessions Ltd (PCL), an associate company of IPC. [229] Expats in Dubai have been deported for kissing in public. [265][267][272] According to Human Rights Watch, the reports of forced disappearance and torture in the UAE are of grave concern. White collar job workers were also threatened by the pandemic in the Emirates, as many UK expats returned home since the beginning of coronavirus.[321]. The UAE's judicial system is derived from the civil law system and Sharia law. Lire la suite, Depuis l'an 2000, le développement économique du golfe Arabo-Persique entraîne de profonds changements architecturaux dans les États de cette région, et notamment aux Émirats arabes unis. The seasonal movements of these groups led to not only frequent clashes between groups but also the establishment of seasonal and semi-seasonal settlements and centres. The UAE has largely escaped the Arab Spring, which other countries have experienced; however, 60 Emirati activists from Al Islah were apprehended for an alleged coup attempt and the attempt of the establishment of an Islamist state in the UAE. The ensuing Wadi Suq period and three Iron Ages saw the emergence of nomadism as well as the development of water management and irrigation systems supporting human settlement in both the coast and interior. In the desert, the flora consists of grasses and thorn bushes. [303], The State Security Apparatus in the UAE has been accused of a series of atrocities and human rights abuses including enforced disappearance, arbitrary arrests and torture,[304], Freedom of association is also severely curtailed. [116] Pakistan was the first country to formally recognize the UAE upon its formation and continues to be one of its major economic and trading partners. Emirati culture is a part of the culture of Eastern Arabia.

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