Due to his wide knowledge and sincerity in the cause of Islam, Imam Ibn Taimiah captures the hearts of all Muslims and is held in high status. suffices to comment on these heretical statements. Ibn Taymiyya at various times declared himself a follower of the Shafi`i school - as interpretations which were innovated by the Jahmiyya and their followers. As for his most common appellation: Ibn Taymiyyah, scholars give different accounts for why he was referred to by this term. [35][40] Regardless, in April 1306 the chief Islamic judges of the Mamluk state declared Ibn Taymiyyah guilty and he was incarcerated. divided into those who loved him and those who did not. -- Allah bless and greet him -- and the latter ordered the people to fast without asking [35] However, if Ibn Taymiyyah ascribed his creed to the Hanbali school of law then it would be just one view out of the four schools which one could follow rather than a creed everybody must adhere to. al-naw`i).18, Also among Ibn Taymiyya's controversies in kalam was his division of tawhid Ibn Taymiyyah, Taqi al-Din Ahmad, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. were divided into parties because of him. "[217] Yahya Mochet says that, Ibn Taymiyyah's call to war was not simply to cause a "rebellion against the political power in place" but to repel an "external enemy". [65] On the same day, Ibn Taymiyyah declared a fatwa which exempted Mamluk soldiers from fasting during Ramadan so that they could preserve their strength. 103-104. multifarious merits and overpowering proofs which all hosts agree are impossible to He did this in a gentle and exemplary manner addressing his intellect, and entrusted him to behave benevolently towards the Muslims in Cyprus, not to strive to change the religion of a single one of them. [53][214] Yossef Rapoport, a reader in Islamic history at Queen Mary, however, says this is not a probable narrative. So did the savant al-Shaykh Ibrahim al-Samnudi al-Mansuri (d. 1314) who He did not confine himself to the knowledge of those around him but also directed his attention to the works of the scholars before his time by way of perusal and memorisation. Michot, Yahya. Topics books of sheikh al-islam ibn taymiyyah islam tawheed sunnah musluman mumin mushrik kafir christian jew Collection opensource Language Malay. tastes the other thing, just because no text mentions the opposite? Yossef Rapoport and Shahab Ahmed, Introduction in Ibn Taymiyya and His Times, eds. A Jew accepted Islam at his hands whilst he was still very young. [40], Scholar Arjan Post, in the introduction to the edition and English translation of Risālat al-sulūk (Epistle on the Spiritual Way) by al-Baʿlabakkī (d. 734/1333), a Lebanon-born Hanbali Sufi and direct student of Ibn Taymiyyah, talks of a "Sufi circle" among his students, notably through ʿImād al-Dīn Aḥmad al-Wāsiṭī, who "fulfilled the role of Sufi shaykh in the Taymiyyan circle until he passed away in 711/1311", and who was appreciated by other famous direct or indirect students of Ibn Taymiyyah who became famous scholars, notably Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya, Ibn Rajab and Al-Dhahabi. [148] Suspected highway robbers who would not reveal their accomplices or the location of their loot, for example should be held in detention and lashed for indefinite periods. [195], He also issued a fatwa to reduce to rubble Christian Churchs in Cairo. of his books, for example: al-Futuhat, al-Kanh, al-Muhkam al-Marbut, al-Durra Studia Islamica, no. to him in particular. [141] In later life he met the Quranic exegete and grammarian Abu Hayyan al-Gharnati to whom he expressed that, "Sibawayh was not the prophet of syntax, nor was he infallible. Ibn Taymiyyah, 13th century Islamic scholar of the Hanbali school who sought the return of the Islamic religion to the Qur’an and the Sunnah and rejected the authority of ijma’ (consensus) if it did not rest on those two sources. intense controversy both in his life and after his death, to the point that scholars were p. 163. His deportation to Alexandria in the year 709H and imprisonment there for 8 months. Harran was a city part of the Sultanate of Rum, now Harran is a small city on the border of Syria and Turkey, currently in Şanlıurfa province. [61] Ibn Taymiyyah was found innocent. Yossef Rapoport and Shahab Ahmed (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2010), 6. Power and creativity are necessary concomitants of God's perfection. [40] The French orientalist Henri Laoust says that during this incarceration Ibn Taymiyyah "wrote his first great work, al-Ṣārim al-maslūl ʿalā s̲h̲ātim al-Rasūl (The Drawn Sword against those who insult the Messenger). single idiot can come up with be addressed with a specific text? Ibn Taymiyyah's followers often deemed him as Sheikh ul-Islam, an honorific title with which he is sometimes still termed today.[99][100][101]. It includes what is done by physical power, what is done by the heart, what is done by the tongue through calling to the way of Allah by means of authoritative proofs and providing opinions, and what is done through management, industry, and wealth. although at one point it was officially announced in Damascus that "Whoever follows Essence to be subject to spatial confinement. An investigation [of his views] was conducted with several scholars [in Cairo] and He placed an emphasis on understanding Islam as it was understood by the salaf (first three generations of Muslims). [184] This rejection included denouncing the views of Ibn Arabi. One of the well-known ones was his stance against Qazan, the ruler of the Tartars. On the contrary, he explicitly states: "The miracles of saints are absolutely true and correct, by the acceptance of all Muslim scholars. [43] "Then they started to wash the Shaykh ... they only let those who helped in the washing to remain by him. Ibn Taymiyyah was partially supported in his view by the Zaydi Shi'ite Ibn al-Wazir. Ibn Taymiyya mostly read by himself until he achieved great learning. and he said to me once, 'The one who is (truly) imprisoned is the one whose heart is imprisoned from Allah and the captivated one is the one whose desires have enslaved him.' While your father and your grandfather, Hulagu were non-believers, they did not attack and they kept their promise. the Prophet -- Allah bless and greet him -- ... is it related that the Prophet -- Allah In Al-siyasa al-Shar`iyah, he focused on duties of individuals and punishments rather than rules and procedural limits of authorities. scholars for involving themselves in philosophical or dialectical disputations, yet he This volume consists of selections from various writings of Ibn Taymiyyah included in Majmu’ Fatawa Shaykh Al Islam (37 volumes) as well as some of his major works such as Minhaj as Sunnah An Nabawiyyah, Dar Ta’arud al Aql wa-An Naql, kitab Ar Rad alaa Mantaqayyin, Al-Istiqamah, and Iqtida As Sirat Al Mustaqeem. able to descend without the Throne being vacant of Him" (, His report from Abu `Umar al-Talmanki's book, His statements: "Allah's elevation over the throne is literal, and the servant's This brought about much goodness in aiding the Sunnah and suppressing innovations. [56], Ibn Taymiyyah collaborated once more with the Mamluks in 1300, when he joined the expedition against the Alawites and Shiites, in the Kasrawan region of the Lebanese mountains. Son père, le chaykh 'Abdou l-Halîm, l’a emmené ainsi que toute sa famille par crainte des Mongols afin de s’installer à Damas, la capitale de la… In this epistle he [40] He was then again summoned for a legal debate, but this time he convinced the judges of his views and was allowed to go free.[68]. [53] Ibn Taymiyyah believed that reason itself validated the entire Qur'an as being reliable and in light of that he argued, if some part of the scripture was to be rejected then this would render the use of reason as an unacceptable avenue through which to seek knowledge. He further claimed that induction itself depends on a process of analogy. Allah's attributes is tantamount to disbelief and apostasy because it reduces Allah to a [36][40][65] Within two days the Mongols were severely defeated and the battle was won. ", Virtues of Muharram and Fasting on 'Ashura', The, Funerals: According to the Qur'an and Sunnah, Julaybib; "This man is of me and I am of him", Ordering the Good and Forbidding the Evil, His Jihad Against the Christians and Rafidah, The Praise of the Scholars for Ibn Taymiyyah, The Ordeals and Imprisonment of Ibn Taymiyyah, A Discussion on His Personal State and Worship of His Lord, Dislike of the Salaf with Regards to Giving Religious Verdicts, How America Is Feathering Her Enemies' Arrows - The Case of Ali Al-Timimi. transmission, they would not succeed. [213], However, some recent scholarship has argued that attempts by Salafis and Jihadis to portray the figure of Ibn Taymiyyah as being a direct classical precursor of their own beliefs are flawed inasmuch as they are often borne, according to these same scholars, of a limited reading of the theologian's substantial corpus of works,[21] many of which have not yet been translated from the original Arabic. An old name that represents the areas of Syria, Jordan, Palestine and Lebanon, Sharaf ad-Din al-Maqdasi (d. 694H) gave him permission to deliver legal verdicts. great numbers of the wise and the elite considered him an eminent, brilliant, and [29] On occasions when he shared the same views and aims as the ruling authorities, his contributions were welcomed but when Ibn Taymiyyah went against the status quo, he was seen as "uncooperative" and on occasions spent much time in prison. This means that he (only) outwardly pretends to be Muslim or he belongs to the worst class of all people who are the people of the bida` (heretical innovations). His family was renowned for its knowledge and stature; both his father and grandfather were people of scholarly repute. He also says: "It is well-known that the Book, the Sunna, and the Consensus Ibn Taymiyyah was brought up, cared for and nurtured by his father. which exists in Allah's Entity, and that it is an Attribute from the pre-eternal [50][222] Oliver Leaman says that Ibn Taymiyyah produced some 700 works in the field of Islamic sciences. Firstly, he rejected monism which he believed was similar to the pantheistic belief that God "encompasses all things". His kunyah is Abu'l-'Abbas and he is also referred to as Taqi ad-Din. In al-Mas'ala al-Tabriziyya Ibn Taymiyya declares: "Labistu al-khirqa [40], The number of scholars under which he studied hadith is said to number more than two hundred,[31][41][43] four of whom were women. Allaah knows the intention of the supplicant and what he wants, no matter what language he speaks, because He hears all the voices in all different languages, asking for all kinds of needs. [150], Ibn Taymiyyah was noted for emphasis he put on the importance of jihad and for the "careful and lengthy attention" he gave "to the questions of martyrdom" in jihad, such as benefits and blessings to be had for martyrs in the afterlife. Such forms of price fixing was detrimental to entrepreneurship. did many Hanbalis in Damascus - and an Ash`ari. which, upon closer examination, are dubious either from the viewpoint of transmission or said to him that were this the case He would necessarily be subject to spatial confinement Gibril Fouad Haddad's introduction in Ibn Jahbal Al-Kilabi, sfn error: no target: CITEREFReynolds2012 (, Arjan Post, "A Glimpse of Sufism from the Circle of Ibn Taymiyya: An Edition and Translation of al-Baʿlabakkī’s (d. 734/1333) Epistle on the Spiritual Way (Risālat al-Sulūk)" in, Meir Hatina, "Debating the “Awakening Shi‘a”: Sunni Perceptions of the Iranian Revolution" in O. Bengio & Meir Litvak, "The Sunna and Shi'a in History: Division and Ecumenism in the Muslim Middle East", Springer (2010), p. 210, Cite error: The named reference ":10" was defined multiple times with different content (see the. He clarified the reality of their condition and showed that it was an obligation to fight them, firstly, because of the consensus of the scholars on the obligation of fighting any group that openly rejects and resists the laws of Islam and secondly, explaining that this ruling is applicable to the Tartars because of their condition. Abandoning it means losing entirely or partially both kinds of happiness. [196] The closing was in violation of a 600-year-old covenant with Christian dhimmis known as the Pact of Umar. [141] He stated that when there is an explanation of an Ayah of the Qur'an or a Hadith, from the Prophet himself, the use of philology or a grammatical explanation becomes obsolete. Ibn Taymiyyah's works served as an inspiration for later Muslim scholars and historical figures, who have been regarded as his admirers or disciples. [40] Henri Laoust says that through this framework, this doctrine, "provides authority for the widest possible scope in personal internationalization of religion. help and the fact that this amounted to diminishing and impeding the establishing of the be far removed from anything like unto Him? In what may justifiably be described as an unscrupulous attempt of magnifying the purported influence of Ibn Taymiyyah on Jewish theology, the claim of the late Pakistani Islamic scholar Mawdudi deserves to be mentioned; if only for the purpose of correcting the published record. [40] Ibn Qayyim was to share in Ibn Taymiyyah's renewed persecution. "[51], Ibn Taymiyya is said to have "spent a lifetime objecting to tomb veneration, only to cast a more powerful posthumous spell than any of his Sufi contemporaries. [140], Issues surrounding the use of reason ('Aql) and rational came about in relation to the attributes of God for which he faced much resistance. [49], Ibn Taymiyyah's emergence into the public and political sphere began in 1293 at the age of 30, when he was asked by the authorities to issue a fatwa (legal verdict) on Assaf al-Nasrani, a Christian cleric accused of insulting Muhammad. [53] Most of the military had fled the city, including most of the civilians. This essentially meant that Mongols were living in a state of jāhilīyah (ignorance). into two types: tawhid al-rububiyya and tawhid al-uluhiyya, respectively, [130] According one supporter, Serajul Haque, his rejection of the consensus of other scholars was justified, on the basis of the instructions given to the jurist Shuraih ibn al-Hârith from the Caliph Umar, one of the companions of Muhammad; to make decisions by first referring to the Qur'an, and if that is not possible, then to the sayings of the Prophet and finally to refer to the agreement of the companions like himself. But you promised and broke your promise. One also notices when reading his biography that Ibn Taymiyyah had the assistance of a number of companions in carrying out such tasks. the ears of the Shaykh Ibrahim al-Raqi who reprimanded him. [29][40][50] A year later he started giving lessons, as chair of the Hanbali Zawiya on Fridays at the Umayyad Mosque, on the subject of tafsir (exegesis of Qur'an). ", "Allah blessed him with the ability to write quickly and he used to write from memory without copying. place and the like. In 1269, aged seven, Ibn Taymiyyah, left Harran together with his father and three brothers. Taqî ad-Dîn Ahmad ibn Taymiyya [1] (né en 1263 à Harran en Turquie actuelle, mort en 1328 à Damas en Syrie), est un théologien et un juriconsulte [2], [3] musulman traditionaliste du XIII e siècle, influent au sein du madhhab hanbalite.Son époque est marquée par les conflits entre Mamelouks et Mongols, et il tente d'organiser le djihad contre ces derniers qu'il accuse de mécréance. "[152], It comprehends all sorts of worship, whether inward or outward, including love for Allah, being sincere to Him, relying on Him, relinquishing one's soul and property for His sake, being patient and austere, and keeping remembrance of Almighty Allah. [50], Ibn Taymiyyah believed that the best role models for Islamic life were the first three generations of Islam (Salaf); which constitute Muhammad's companions, referred to in Arabic as Sahaba (first generation), followed by the generation of Muslims born after the death of Muhammad known as the Tabi'un (second generation) which is then followed lastly by the next generation after the Tabi'un known as Tabi' Al-Tabi'in (third generation). [40] An agreement had been made in 1316 between the amir of Mecca and the Ilkhanid ruler Öljaitü, brother of Ghazan Khan, to allow a favourable policy towards Shi'ism in the city. [40] Around the same time the Shia theologian Al-Hilli, who had played a crucial role in the Mongol ruler's decision to make Shi'ism the state religion of Persia,[72][73] wrote the book Minhaj al-Karamah (The Way of Charisma'),[29] which dealt with the Shia doctrine of the Imamate and also served as a refutation of the Sunni doctrine of the caliphate. divorce pronounced in innovative fashion does not take effect, against the consensus of [31] Ibn Taymiyyah learnt about Sufism and stated that he had reflected on the works of; Sahl al-Tustari, Junayd of Baghdad, Abu Talib al-Makki, Abdul-Qadir Gilani, Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi and Ibn Arabi. Ibn Taymiya is Ahmad Ibn Abd al-Salaam ibn Abdullah, Abu al-Abbas Taqi al-Din ibn Taymiya al-Harrani, born in Harran, east of Damascus, in 661/1263. Because of this, he reasoned they were living in a state of jahiliyyah, or pre-Islamic pagan ignorance. if these sciences were before his very eyes and he was picking and choosing from them at [33] His detentions were due to certain elements of his creed and his views on some jurisprudential issues. The strength of his memory and speed of his comprehension. [193] Meanwhile, in what a number of modern scholars have seen as the golden age of Christian Arabic literature, Arab speaking Christian scholars wrote extensive theological treaties in Arabic language in which they not only responded to the polemics of their Muslim advertiser but they also provided systematic, summary discussions of Christian faith and practice. [38] Before its destruction by the Mongols, Harran was also well known since the early days of Islam for its Hanbali school and tradition,[39] to which Ibn Taymiyyah's family belonged. [68][40] Ibn Taymiyyah failed to convince the judges of his position and so was incarcerated for the charge of anthropomorphism on the recommendation of al-Hindi. that one who travels to visit the Prophet commits innovation. The Mamluk sultan Al-Adil Kitbugha was deposed by his vice-sultan Al-Malik al-Mansur Lajin who then ruled from 1297 to 1299. [35] He was released four months later in September.[35]. Annotated Translation of Three Fatwas", in, Michot, Yahya. He teaches also that Muslims cannot accept Druze penitence nor keep them alive, and Druze property should be confiscated, and their women enslaved. call all people to the tawhid al-uluhiyya of which they were ignorant - since tawhid [56][57] The book is about divine attributes and it served as an answer to a question from the city of Hama, Syria. With a very brief examination of his life in this area we can point out at a number of incidents: These are some examples that demonstrate the efforts of Ibn Taymiyyah, may Allah have mercy upon him, in ordering the good and forbidding the evil. [145], Ibn Taymiyya believed that Islamic policy and management was based on Quran 4:58,[146] and that the goal of al-siyasa (politics, the political) should be to protect al-din (religion) and to manage al-dunya (worldly life and affairs). contemporary, the imam and mufti of Aleppo then Damascus Ibn Jahbal al-Kilabi (d. 733), in His reign, marked by economical and political unrest, only lasted a year. When he was ultimately banned from having any books, papers and pens during the latter stage of his final imprisonment, Ibn Taymiyyah devoted all of his time to worship and reciting the Qur'an. He would not delay in answering questions that came to him and he authored and wrote from his memory while in prison.[39]. direction, unless his saying such a thing is a slip of the tongue or a slip of the pen. When the Mongols, whom he considered unbelievers, took control of the city of Mardin[191] the population included many Muslims. al-Subki and others warned us. Owing to its desire to present the … who claimed that all Muslims among the mutakallimun worshipped other than Allah due in two parts, one being tawhid al-rububiyya and the other tawhid al-uluhiyya, convinced that he was a scholar capable of independent reasoning (mujtahid). Ibn Taymiyyah declared that jihad against the Mongol attack on the Malmuk sultanate was not only permissible, but obligatory. Hanbali scholar Ahmad ibn Umar al-Maqdisi accused Ibn Taymiyah of apostasy over the treatise. [41] He also studied mathematics, algebra, calligraphy, theology (kalam), philosophy, history and heresiography. He started issuing legal verdicts at the age of nineteen. Sufi cloak of `Abd al-Qadir, there being between him and me two shaykhs."9. [citation needed], By early January 1300, the Mongol allies, the Armenians and Georgians, had caused widespread damage to Damascus and they had taken Syrian prisoners. [151][154], In the modern context, his rulings have been used by some Islamist groups to declare jihad against various governments. "[178] Other scholars in opposition to Ibn Taymiyyah's views include Ghazali,[176] Nawawi,[176] Munawi[176] and Qadi Ayyad who stated that visiting the Prophet was "a sunna of the Muslims on which there was consensus, and a good and desirable deed. His opinions and manner created The Hanbali school was seen as the most traditional school out of the four legal systems (Hanafi, Maliki and Shafii) because it was "suspicious of the Hellenist disciplines of philosophy and speculative theology. [139] conclusion was that "whoever does not know tawhid al-uluhiyya, his knowledge [64], The year 1303 saw the third Mongol invasion of Syria by Ghazan Khan. blessing of the Community, the sign-post of the people of knowledge, the inheritor of enumerate, the Shaykh, the Imam and faithful servant of his Lord, the doctor in the The closing was in violation of a 600-year-old covenant with Christian dhimmis known as the Pact of Umar. [40] In the contemporary world, he may be considered at the root of Wahhabism, the Senussi order and other later reformist movements. On the contrary, it is part of His perfection. [135] He attached caveats however to the use of analogy because he considered the use of reason to be secondary to the use of revelation. from that of doctrine. The total number of scholars whom he took knowledge from exceeds two hundred.[10]. There is, though, no process of canonization or veneration of icons, which is strongly condemned in Islam as violations of the basic monotheism.

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